New developments in hybrid-electric propulsion system for aircraft
Dr Frank Anton Executive vice president eAircraft Siemens Corporate Technology GERMANY
In this keynote presentation Frank Anton, executive vice president for eAircraft at Siemens Corporate Technology, will discuss new developments in hybrid-electric propulsion systems for aircraft.
Mark Scully Head of technology - advanced systems and propulsion Aerospace Technology Institute UK
The Aerospace Technology Institute has released a roadmap for aircraft electrical power systems. This presentation discusses the key needs and gaps, and shows a path to delivering the critical capabilities. The ATI research portfolio includes a number of challenging projects to develop capability for demonstrator aircraft and future concepts. Relevant project case studies are presented.
New electrification, new manufacturing and new power flow
Dr Hao Huang Technology chief GE Aviation USA
Aerospace is moving into a very special, bright era. The speaker will talk about this era from four perspectives: bright era – electrification perspective: proactively prepare a new roadmap based on the combination of HEP/MEA once the Brayton cycle limit is reached; bright era – additive manufacturing perspective: will change almost all aspects of the way the industry produces flight devices; bright era – WBG perspective: WBG devices, such as SiC/GaN, are a key enabler for electrification; bright era – digital perspective: includes artificial intelligence, machine learning, autonomous, Internet of Things, and so on.
European Union research activities on electric and hybrid aviation
Dr Michael Kyriakopoulos Aviation research policy officer European Commission BELGIUM
The European Union Aeronautics research program is celebrating its 30-year anniversary. The presentation will review the EU-funded research activities relevant to electric and hybrid aviation. It will highlight the research funding opportunities within Horizon 2020, and outline the European Commission proposal for the next EU research framework program (Horizon Europe).
Emission-free hybrid propulsion system for aircraft applications
Prof Josef Kallo Head of energy systems integration Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) GERMANY
Electric flight opens up a new dimension in aviation and offers unprecedented opportunities for sustainable mobility in the future. A growing number of projects in research institutions and industry are investigating how electric – and thus emission-free and low-noise – aircraft concepts can be implemented, and which application scenarios are the most promising.
Propulsion Systems Design
Smartflyer – the hybrid-electric propulsion system for the future
Rolf Stuber CEO / head of design Smartflyer Ltd SWITZERLAND
The presentation will introduce a serial hybrid-electric configuration as the future propulsion of aviation. It offers quiet operation around airports, two-engine reliability on a single propeller, and efficient use of energy with smart power management.
Advantages of axial flux motor technologies in electric aircraft
Dr Michael Lampérth CEO Phi-Power Ag SWITZERLAND
Axial flux motors offer an excellent torque-to-speed ratio, making them suitable for direct-drive operation. The presentation will explain the fundamental physical laws of axial flux machines and compare them with conventional motor typologies. A review of different types of axial flux motors (internal rotor, external rotor, multi-core machines) will follow, with an assessment of their suitability for electric and hybrid aircraft applications. To conclude, a summary of Phi-Power application examples will be presented.
Hybrid propulsion airplanes – market and experience
Miguel Angel Suarez Sanchez CEO Axter Aerospace SL SPAIN
The presentation will offer an introduction to parallel, series-hybrid and full-electric propulsion for aviation, and outline the benefits of parallel hybrid for light and general aviation. It will also cover experience with parallel-hybrid configuration with light airplanes (two and four seaters); real test data and customer experience; the hybrid market and society demands; and the next steps in hybrid technology development.
Enabling Infrastructure for Electric and Hybrid Aviation
What are the consequences of electric flying for GA airports?
Frank Geerlings Project director Dutch E-viation & Airport Centre Teuge NETHERLANDS
This presentation will review developments at the innovation and expertise cluster Dutch E-viation & Airport Centre Teuge, which is the national knowledge center for electric flying in the Netherlands. It is a cooperation between TU Delft, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Deltion College Zwolle, Airport Teuge and the Cleantech Region. With students, we work on questions concerning the consequences for the GA infrastructure, maintenance and training. We are also going to buy a Cessna Skymaster and make it electric. We work with companies like Saab, Fokker, Ecotap, AMN, IAS and Pipistrel.
Aeronautical electric vehicle charging grid
Anthony Baro Managing principal E2SOL LLC USA
Aeronautical electric vehicle power demand has a major impact on the utility power distribution infrastructure at local airports and leads to increased electrical expense for airport operators. Current airport electrical infrastructure at nearby power distribution centers has not been upgraded to meet the anticipated aeronautical electrical usage demand. A new decentralized electric power generation and distribution grid operating model is proposed for industry consideration.
Improving Power Density & Efficiency
Propulsion for electric and hybrid aircraft
Evgeni Ganev Chief engineer Honeywell Aerospace USA
The presentation discusses the challenging propulsion needs of electric drive systems applicable to electric and hybrid aircraft. Novel system architectures are considered and advantages quantified in line with the major components like electric rotating machines, motor controllers and speed reduction elements. Criteria for selection are presented, keeping in mind interfaces, cooling options, lubrication, power distribution, power quality, EMI and partial discharge events. Different levels of system and component integration are considered as a major driver to achieve the best power densities. Results from trade studies will be presented.
Novel electric power systems designs for aircraft – a route to zero-CO2 long-haul air travel
Peter Malkin Strategic research advisor Newcastle University UK
Electrical power systems available today are far too low in power density and efficiency to be effective for large aircraft propulsion systems. This is partly due to the fact that they have never been designed for this type of application, so significant improvements can be achieved with design changes. Although these improvements are likely to pave the way for partial systems or smaller aircraft, they clearly will not be sufficient to power large long-haul aircraft. However, adoption of the new technology of superconducting cryogenic electrical systems brings significant performance improvements and enables the creation of high-power, efficient systems suitable for large aircraft. Furthermore, the use of these systems justifies the use of cryo–fuels which, in themselves, can significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The paper explains how this is possible, and the research and development work required to achieve these goals.
E-flying motors – optimizing power density and efficiency
Dr Sami Ruoho Product manager Arnold Magnetic Technologies UK
Low weight and power density are decisive targets when designing motors for electrical aircraft. These targets can be achieved by using high-performance materials in optimized arrangements. The presentation discusses high-performance SmCo and GBD-NdFeB magnet materials enabling the highest power products, including at elevated temperatures. It will also cover the use of laminated magnets to reduce eddy-current losses in rotors and Halbach magnet arrangements to optimize performance. To maximize the stator efficiency, the benefits of thin-gauge silicon steel will be demonstrated.
Highest-performance electric systems – from track to sky
Andrew Cross Chief technical officer Integral Powertrain Ltd NA1
Integral Powertrain has developed some of the world’s most power-dense electric motors and inverters for racing applications, including the record-breaking and multi-awarding-winning system for the VW I.D. R Pikes Peak car. This presentation covers the basics that enable power density and gives an insight into the current art-of-the-possible in top-end motorsport, including efficiency data. In a move from track to sky, some designs for next-generation aerospace applications that could deliver world-leading motor concepts with power densities of over 45kW/Kg, and integrated inverters beyond 100kW/kg, will be presented.
Challenges in achieving high-power-density motor/generator technologies for hybrid-electric propulsion
Cristian Anghel Technology fellow Honeywell USA
The presentation will address the challenges in achieving high-power-density motor and generator technologies that enable hybrid-electric propulsion. Compact and efficient motors and generators are key technologies that support the goals of hybrid-electric propulsion. The primary objective is to drive overall system efficiencies as high as possible while reducing system weight, by increasing the power density and subsystem simplicity. Various electric machine topologies and design approaches that support these aims will be reviewed. Design challenges, technical solutions and testing and integration challenges will be presented.
Addressing the challenges of lightweight electric propulsion through air-gap windings
Prof Phil Mellor Professor of electrical engineering University of Bristol UK
The delivery of power-dense electrical drives for aircraft propulsion will require radical changes to the way electrical machines are manufactured. The flux-carrying limitations of soft magnetic materials are becoming a major barrier to further improvements in power density, and the replacement of conventional toothed stator designs with air-gap windings has been shown to have advantages. However, the implementation of an air-gap winding imposes new design challenges. The presentation will review these challenges and opportunities. In particular, the prospects of using multi-functional composites based on a fiber-reinforced conductor matrix in lightweight air-gap wound electrical machines will be discussed.
Electrical Power Systems Design
Identifying the major hurdles on the path to all-electric flight
This panel discussion will take on the task of identifying the major technical developments necessary to move along the path to all electric flight. Reviewing the priorities and assessing the progress toward each, the discussion will provide attendees the opportunity to add their own perspective on the priorities and progress to that of the expert panel
Panel Discussion - Identifying the major hurdles on the path to all-electric flight
Approaches to Energy Storage
Hybrid auxiliary power unit based on solid-oxide fuel cell
Mikhail Gordin General director Central Institute of Aviation Motors RUSSIA
The presentation provides a view on the main design features of the auxiliary power unit (APU) for more-electric aircraft based on solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC) combined with a traditional gas turbine unit. The study shows the way to create the correct energy and mass balance for such a hybrid APU and assess its fuel and weight efficiency. The proposed 300KVA APU design assumes catalytic conversion of jet fuel into syngas, then direct conversion of syngas into electricity at the SOFC battery, and finally burning the excess gas in a gas turbine unit to generate electricity and maintain heat and pressure balance.
Battery development for e-ROP (electric and rotary-engined hybrid plane)
Prof Rainer Klein Head of the mechatronic/electromobility department DHBW Mosbach GERMANY
The presentation focuses on the development of a high-performance battery for a hybrid aircraft with electric and rotary propulsion (e-ROP). The focus is on the evaluation of suitable battery cells, battery lifetime and safety aspects.
Ultracapacitors for aerospace and defense applications
John Hyde Senior chemical engineer Nanoramic Laboratories USA
Ultracapacitors are specially designed to deliver high capacitance and power density. However, commercially available supercapacitors are not designed to withstand the hostile conditions to which electronic systems for aerospace and defense systems are subjected. Nanoramic’s FastCAP ultracapacitors and structural ultracapacitors are engineered to withstand extreme shocks, vibrations and hostile temperatures as low as -55°C. Ultracapacitors are frequently used together with traditional energy storage solutions to achieve the ideal balance of power density and energy density for the specific application. They are suitable for supporting high peak power, leveling high peak loads, and providing high-power backup in energy storage solutions.
Hydrogen research for aviation
Roel van Benthem R&D manager energy systems/thermal control Royal Netherlands Aerospace Centre NETHERLANDS
Due to its high specific energy and zero emissions, hydrogen could be an ideal solution for sustainable aviation. However, a major disadvantage is that hydrogen requires bulky and heavyweight storage in the form of high-pressure or cryogenics tanks, which largely counterbalances this. Despite these difficulties, hydrogen offers significant advantages for electric aircraft compared with batteries, as demonstrated by NLR's drone project HYDRA.
Power electronics – integrated inverter system for long-range UAV
Florian Hilpert Group leader aviation electronics Fraunhofer IISB GERMANY
The presentation will discuss general trends and potential in lightweight power electronics, and offer an insight into a current inverter development research project.
Testing and Validation
Dynamic analysis of an embedded high-speed electric fan
Jean-Baptiste Dupont Head of simulation team Vibratec FRANCE
In the area of aircraft electrification and new hybrid-electric propulsion, the aeronautical industry faces the integration of new driving chains from the electric motor to the high-speed rotor. Consequently, new structural dynamics are expected, increasing the risk of mechanical faults, and new sources of noise and vibration. VibraTec, a center of excellence in mechanical, vibration and acoustic sciences, has developed a complete engineering process to address such phenomena. The presentation introduces motivations related to the aeronautical industry and the background theory of electromechanical sources. It is applied to a high-speed electric compressor. Finally, results are compared with experimental data.
Flexible platform for validation testing on electrical aircraft
Javier Gutierrez Business development manager National Instruments SPAIN
Electric subsystems offer clear advantages over their predecessors, driven by technology advancements in power electronics. However, simulating and testing these electric and electromechanical systems presents considerable challenges. To take full advantage of the benefits of electrical systems, a test platform and methodology that can address these challenges is needed. The platform must be capable of integrating the latest models and algorithm ecosystems of vendors servicing this market, performing highly deterministic, real-time simulation routines across hundreds or even thousands of cases, and integrating IO, buses and even RF comms.
Challenges of more-electric technologies testing and validation in aerospace
Charles Fallaha Technical manager Opal-RT Technologies CANADA
New generations of aircraft include electric components and systems that replace traditional hydraulic and pneumatic ones. These new systems need to undergo extensive validation and testing before their full integration into the aircraft build program. Virtual testing and real-time simulation approaches allow these new technologies to be validated at the early design stages with minimum incurred cost and time. The presentation will showcase a few application projects of virtual testing of more-electric systems that are currently being developed at Opal-RT, with a particular focus on topics such as EMC/EMI and power quality analysis.
Novel Concepts and Designs
ACCEL: the world's fastest electric aircraft
Matheu Parr ACCEL technical manager Rolls-Royce Plc UK
Electrification is an inescapable trend across aerospace markets as we all seek cleaner, more sustainable power. The ACCEL project is intended to pioneer this third wave of aviation through a highly specialized goal of building the world’s fastest all-electric aircraft. ACCEL will help us bring forward the adoption of zero-carbon flight, while also looking to stimulate the development of an electric aircraft supply chain, and of course make a run for the record books with a target speed of 300+ mph.
Demonstrator of hybrid-electric propulsion system with superconductive electric motor
Dr Anton Varyukhin Head of hybrid and electric propulsion systems department Central Institute of Aviation Motors RUSSIA
The presentation describes the development and testing of the serial hybrid-electric propulsion system demonstrator. The demonstrator consists of a 500kW high-temperature superconductive electric motor, its cryogenic and control system, traditional (not superconductive) 400kW electric generator, Klimov TV2-117 turboshaft gas-turbine engine to rotate it, power management system and battery. The superconductive electric motor was designed and manufactured by SuperOx, and the electric generator was developed in partnership with Ufa State Aviation Technical University. The battery provides maximum power of 150kW for five minutes. Different types of testbeds and climatic chambers for gas-turbine engines were adopted to test the demonstrator and its components.
The boosted turbofan for electrified aircraft: the TRADE perspective
Dr Michael Sielemann Aerospace industry director Modelon GERMANY
The boosted turbofan is a highly relevant concept to achieve improvements in fuel efficiency and emissions, which are required due to the amount of air travel worldwide. Limited detailed results have been reported on the boosted turbofan concept taking constraints from the gas turbine cycle and the electrical system into account (e.g. impact on surge margin, interaction with handling bleed). This presentation summarizes the results of the Turbo electRic Aircraft Design Environment (TRADE) project, which develops a physics-based simulation/optimization platform for such applications. Results are presented and discussed in relation to the (still limited) scientific literature.
Electric propulsion for Airlander 10, the first hybrid air vehicle
Andy Barton Bid manager Hybrid Air Vehicles Limited UK
The Airlander 10 is a revolutionary new aircraft that combines the properties of an airship (buoyant lift), airplane (aerodynamic lift) and helicopter (vectored thrust) with a large upper surface, which makes it an ideal candidate for full electrification. The prototype Airlander 10 flew in the UK as a civil aircraft in 2016 and 2017 with fossil fuel engines. The production Airlander 10 will have the option of being fitted with electric propulsion and solar panels, enabling a 1,000kg payload to be carried for up to 60 days, or 60 passengers to be transported over 1,000km, with no fossil fuel burn.
Lightweight, high-efficiency solar technology for autonomous aircraft
Dr Aarohi Vijh Head of product Alta Devices USA
Alta Devices will present its latest record-breaking Gen 4 high-efficiency lightweight solar technology developed especially for things that fly. This new technology offers very low weight and reduced thickness, and supports higher-efficiency multi-junction solar cell designs.
i-UAM – an option to reinvigorate general aviation
Dr Rene Nardi Business development director Alltec USA
I-UAM or Inter-Urban Air Mobility, as addressed by this paper, refers to air transportation activities designed for small groups of two to six passengers traveling relatively short distances between two locations, 200-300 miles apart. Those first few hundred miles is where general aviation can make a big impact on business and tourist travelers, going directly where they want and when they want. This paper describes some of the challenges and opportunities that arise once technology with unprecedented power transforms the small general aviation aircraft. The personal aircraft entering into service by 2025 will be simpler to operate and more capable than today’s aircraft.
Developments in eVTOL
Tilt-wing eVTOL aircraft conceptual design and development
David Fillingham Research engineer Rolls-Royce UK
This paper will cover the conceptual design and development of a tilt-wing eVTOL aircraft concept aimed at improving urban mobility. The paper will cover the basic conceptual design, the aerodynamic and control system challenges and lessons learned during the flight testing of a scale model.
Technical challenges in designing electrical machines for e_VTOL applications
Dr Mircea Popescu Chief Technology Officer Motor Design Ltd. UK
James Z de Ferranti General Manager Denis Ferranti Group UK
Electrical machines for aerospace in general and particularly for eVTOL applications require high power and torque density and safe operation for passengers and/or crew. These requirements can be achieved with specific configurations.
This presentation shows potential solutions using rare-earth permanent magnets or induction and switched reluctance technology. State-of-the-art materials are required and innovative technical ideas to ensure safe behavior.
Analysis of a convertible aircraft concept with a hybrid powerplant
Sergey Yegoshin Engineer TsAGI RUSSIA
Andrey Redkin Lead engineer TsAGI RUSSIA
Research has been carried out to determine the rational concept and operating efficiency of a convertible aircraft with a multirotor lifting system and a hybrid powerplant for passenger transportation to remote settlements without airfields. In this paper, several concepts of convertible aircraft were analyzed. They differ in the following key features: the number and location of the lifting rotors; the method of fixing, folding and retraction for lifting rotors, or the use of tilt rotor groups; the main cruise engines and rotor (propeller) positioning; the new wing geometry.
Please Note: This conference programme may be subject to change